Post by DoctoriDuniya

Over the last few years, the cases of skin cancer have increased continuously. Among them, melanoma is one of the most common and serious types of skin cancer that develops in the melanin-producing cells. Melanin gives the color to the skin. It happens when the damage skin cells grow uncontrollably. It can also occur in eyes or in any internal organs.
The exact cause of all melanomas is still not clear, but some of the experts predict that excessive exposure to UV rays from sunlight may increase your risk. Avoiding sun exposure can help reduce your risk of getting it.

People above 40 are more susceptibleto develop skin cancer, especially women. Knowing the symptoms and signs of melanoma can help prevent serious complications.
The  melanoma signs and symptoms often are:
• An unusual change in an existing mole
• Unusual skin growth
• Itchiness and bleeding
• Bigger mole
• Darkening of the skin

Melanoma can occur on any body parts-
1- Spaces between your toes
2- Palms
3- Scalps
4- Under a nail
5. Mouth
6. Digestive tract
7. Urinary tract

When to see a doctor-
Make an appointment with your doctor if you ever observe any changes in the skin that seem unusual.
Melanoma occurs when something unusual or wrong occur in the melanin-producing cells that provide color to the body. Healthy skin cells develop in a controlled manner and when they die, new cells push them towards outer surface and then they eventually fall off. But when the skin cells become cancerous they grow out of control and form a group of cancerous cell. In most of the cases, melanoma is also caused due to high exposure to sunlight. But some other factors also contribute to your risk of getting it.

Features of melanoma cancer can be described as-
A- Asymmetry
B- Border irregularity
C- Colour variation
D- Diameter > 6 mm
E- Evolving characteristics

If moles present on your skin are becoming asymmetric, having an irregular border, changing colors and appearance or bigger than 6mm. You might be at risk of melanoma. Talk to your doctor, if you experience these symptoms.If skin cancer detected earlier can be treated successfully in most of the cases.
Risk Factors-
Excessive exposure to UV rays increases the chances to develop skin cancer. People are more susceptible to get skin cancer who spend more time in sunlight. Here are some risk factors that can also develop skin cancer.
For melanoma, other risk factors include:
Family History-The chances of skin cancer increase if you have a family history of melanoma.
Exposure-People who spend more time in direct exposure to the sun are at potential risk of developing melanoma.
Complexion-People with fair complexion or those who have Caucasian skin with red or blond hair are at great risk of developing melanoma.
Number of lesions (wound/injury)- People having lesions on their skin, especially abnormal ones, are at a greater risk of melanoma
Sunburn- One or more blisters or sunburns increase the risk of melanoma.
Weak immune system-People having weak immune system are at great risk of developing melanoma.

Types of Treatment
1. Surgery
2. Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, or Immunotherapy
3. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy
4. Cryotherapy

Lifestyle Measures
1. Avoid midday sun exposure-If possible, avoid exposure to the sun between 10AM and 4PM.Because the sun’s rays are most powerful during this time.
2. Sunscreen-Applying sunscreen before 20 to 30 minutes before the sun exposure
can help ensure you are always protected.
3. Protective clothing-Protect yourself with tightly woven cloth from harmful UV rays as sunscreen alone would not enough to protect.
4. Check your skin regularly-Regular self-examination of your skin can early detect skin cancer and allow you to start your treatment early.


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